Programming Course for Bioinformatics and Internet

References and Data Structures


  1. What are Hard References.
  2. Creating a reference to a named variable.
  3. Dereferencing.
  4. Using references for passing data to a subroutine.
  5. Additional examples of dereferencing.
  6. Dereferencing: accessing individual array or hash elements using the arrow operator.
  7. Looping over elements of array and hash references.
  8. Creating anonymous references.
  9. Complex Data Structures - Introduction.
  10. Creating a two-dimensional array.
  11. Creating a two-dimensional array - Cont..
  12. Reading the two-dimensional array data from a file.
  13. Accessing data in the two-dimensional array.
  14. Creating and manipulating a hash of arrays.
  15. Non-homogeneous data structures.

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